Statistics and Statecraft in 19th-century America
Benjamin MacDonald Schmidt
Climate metadata, 1789-c.1860
1848 6 1 3723 29038 02 4 10ISABE*_N 1 5 165 20779701 69 5 0 1 FFFFFF77AAAAAAAAAAAA 99 0 790044118480601 3714N 6937W NW 51 NW 57 NW 51 201A.STEWART NEW BEDFORD WHALING V OYAGE 2620 199
Confederate Navy Engraving 1862, from http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/maury_mat_bene.htm
Logbook Digitization in the 1920s
Wallbrink, H. and F.B. Koek, Data Acquisition And Keypunching Codes For Marine Meteorological Observations At The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 1854–1968
Digitized logbooks, c. 1930
Wallbrink and Koek
In a recent bulletin of the Superintendent of the Census for 1890 appear these significant words: "Up to and including 1880 the country had a frontier of settlement, but at present the unsettled area has been so broken into by isolated bodies of settlement that there can hardly be said to be a frontier line. In the discussion of its extent, its westward movement, etc., it can not, therefore, any longer have a place in the census reports." This brief official statement marks the closing of a great historic movement. Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West.
The maps of the census reports show an uneven advance of the farmer's frontier, with tongues of settlement pushed forward and with indentations of wilderness. In part this is due to Indian resistance, in part to the location of river valleys and passes, in part to the unequal force of the centers of frontier attraction.
David Rumsey Historical Maps
Turner, "Western State Making in the Revolutionary Era:" AHR, Volume 1, Issue 1